Liberty and Equality in Political Economy From Locke versus Rousseau to the Present

Stephen Hicks reviews Nick and Gordon’s latest: an incentive for me to begin reading it given that all three are some of the best conference discussants I’ve come across.

The Lockeans ask, “How can we raise everyone up?” while the Rousseaueans ask, “If we can’t raise all of the poor up, how can we lower the rich to an appropriate level?” Psychologically, then, Lockeans are oriented toward success, while Rousseaueans are oriented toward alienation. Further, Lockean social psychology emphasizes respect for others’ achievements while Rousseauean social psychology attends to the envy felt toward those who have more.